The Important Role of Feet and Ankles

The foot and ankle form a complex system of 28 bones, 33 joints, and over 100 ligaments, tendons, and muscles that serve as the foundational support for our entire body structure. They are essential for supporting body weight and maintaining balance, stability, and propulsion as we navigate different terrains.

Any discomfort, injury, or misalignment in the feet or ankles can significantly impact our mobility and posture, leading to potential pain or issues in the knees, hips, or lower back. Given the integral role of the feet in overall body function, addressing any related injuries or dysfunctions is crucial for maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle.

Common issues associated with the feet and ankles include hyper- or hypo-mobility, arthritis, overuse injuries like shin splints and tendonitis, ankle sprains, instability, and post-fracture complications.

Physical therapy offers effective solutions to alleviate these problems. Physical therapists specialize in assessing, treating, and enhancing the function of the foot and ankle through a combination of techniques such as manual therapy, targeted exercises for strengthening, balance enhancement, and posture correction. PTs personalize treatment plans to address specific goals and diagnoses, aiming to alleviate pain, enhance strength, restore motion, improve stability, and reduce chance of future injury. PTs can conduct thorough gait analyses to identify and rectify any biomechanical abnormalities, thereby reducing strain and dysfunction throughout the body. Thanks to physical therapy, you can return to an active, pain-free lifestyle by minimizing limitations and optimizing overall foot and ankle function.

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (“TMD”) is a musculoskeletal problem of the jaw generally characterized by jaw pain and clicking and often accompanied by headaches, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and neck pain. It can be worsened by poor postural habits, grinding/clenching teeth while sleeping or awake, sleep apnea, dental conditions, chewing gum, ice or other dense items, eating foods that require wide jaw opening, stress or psychological trauma, and others. Common treatment options include a bite or night guard, dental care, psychotherapy, physical therapy, and surgery.

Physical therapists evaluate and treat both the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the cervical spine (neck). Clinicians begin a course of care by evaluating the neck and jaw to identify patients’ unique presentation and develop customized treatment plans accordingly. During the evaluation process, neck and jaw mobility, strength, jaw opening and closing, airway clearance, surrounding tissue tenderness, muscle and ligament tightness, disc and retrodiscal tissue mechanics, signs of grinding/clenching and posture are assessed.

Physical therapy treatment often involves a combination of manual therapy, exercise, postural training, eating and chewing education, dry needling, and other modalities to address both jaw and neck pain and dysfunction. Physical Therapy is often provided in conjunction with medical management, dental care, and psychotherapy as appropriate. Treatment for TMD can range from weeks to months and is often related to complexity and chronicity of condition.

Patients who are compliant with care including self-management typically appreciate the greatest success. Your dentist, physician, nurse practitioner or physician assistant can refer you to physical therapy.


Dr. Mike Winebrenner is a 1999 graduate of the Bachelor of Science program in Physical Therapy at Daemen College and a 2008 graduate of the Master of Business Administration program from Loyola College in Maryland.  He earned his Doctor of Physical Therapy from Widener University in 2009.  Mike is Dry Needling, LSVT BIG and Bike Fit certified. Additionally, he has advanced training in temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). With a strong background in spine care, his focus is on long term prevention and wellness.  Mike’s commitment to exercise and wellness is evident by his active lifestyle, including cycling, fishing, kayaking, hiking and health club exercise.

Why Do My Joints Hurt in the Cold?

While there is no single explanation on why cold weather can affect the joints and cause pain, experts have several possible explanations.

Changes in barometric pressure, or the pressure of the air, can affect the body. When barometric pressure drops, tendons, muscles, and surrounding tissues expand. This expansion can induce discomfort, given the confined space within the body. When the cartilage that cushions the bones inside a joint has been worn away, the nerves in exposed bones might pick up on changes in pressure. Humidity, precipitation, and temperature are also at play with weather, making it challenging for scientists to pinpoint the precise cause.

Low temperatures can make the fluid inside joints thicker, thus making them feel stiffer. When temperatures drop, nerves and blood vessels in extremities constrict, reducing blood flow to preserve warmth for vital organs. This vascular response can lead to stiff and achy joints. Rainy, chilly days also contribute to a decrease in physical activity. When people become less active, joints can become inactive and subsequently stiffen. Those with arthritis and chronic pain are more vulnerable to cold weather discomfort.

To fend off winter joint discomfort, consider adopting these proactive measures:

Bundle Up: Combat the cold by dressing in layers, indulge in warm showers or baths, and cozy up with a heating pad or electric blanket to soothe your muscles.

Stay Active: Keep your muscles and joints agile by engaging in low-impact exercises such as walking, yoga, or swimming. Steer clear of unnecessary joint strain, like lifting heavy objects.

Prioritize Rest and Nutrition: Ensure a good night’s sleep, maintain a healthy diet, and foster a positive mindset. These factors can positively impact various facets of your health, potentially alleviating joint pain.

The impact of weather on joint pain highlights the need for a holistic lifestyle approach. Adopting lifestyle changes can play a pivotal role in combating winter joint discomfort. For individuals seeking personalized guidance and specialized care, the expertise of a physical therapist can be instrumental in managing and mitigating the effects of joint pain.

The assistance of a qualified physical therapist can provide targeted and individualized solutions. A physical therapist, with their knowledge of biomechanics, exercise physiology, and rehabilitation techniques, can tailor a treatment plan to address the specific needs of individuals experiencing joint pain. Through collaborative efforts, individuals can work towards enhancing joint mobility, reducing pain, and improving overall quality of life, even in the face of challenging weather conditions. Embracing a comprehensive approach that combines personal initiatives with professional guidance is key to effectively managing joint pain, ensuring a more comfortable and active lifestyle.

Source: UChicago Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center

Choose PT First for Low Back Pain

Around four out of five people have low back pain at some point in their lives. Low back pain is one of the most common reasons people visit their healthcare providers.  

What Can Cause Low Back Pain?

  • As people age, bodies change. Being less active can accelerate changes including reduced flexibility and strength, which can result ini pain and stiffness.
  • People who are carrying excess weight are more likely to suffer from low back pain with the added weight increasing pressure on the joints of the body.
  • Repetitive lifting and bending as part of your daily work can increase the risk of injury.
  • Acute injury from overexertion including lifting a heavy object or performing several hours of activity that your body isn’t prepared for.

Evidence has shown that most patients with low back pain can recover faster when the patient chooses physical therapy first. PT is a less costly alternative to medication, surgery, and other invasive medical procedures. This is why states have passed legislation allowing patients to go directly to a physical therapist without a physician’s referral.  

Don’t Be a Statistic

  • $50 billion is spent on back pain annually
  • There are 31 million people with back pain
  • 50% of working Americans admit to back pain
  • Only 7% of low back pain patients go to see a physical therapist

For the senior population, Physical Therapist Thad Poitevint goes by the mantra, “Check yourself and correct yourself before you end up with pain.” He adds, “Go heavy on the emphasis on good body mechanics and positioning with the senior population. I tell them to check their posture and make corrections in real time. Small changes that are made consistently over time can help prevent low back pain and other spine issues.”  

How to Prevent Low Back Pain

You can’t prevent all lower back pain, but you do have control over some aspects in your life that can help.

  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Get regular exercise to maintain flexibility and strength.
  • Reduce risk of injury when lifting by testing the weight, keeping the object as close as possible, engaging your core, and using your legs.  
  • Avoid bending and twisting at the same time.  

Physical therapy can help determine the cause of your back pain and design a treatment plan that is specific to you and your goals. If back pain is changing how you move, impacting daily function, or limiting the activities you enjoy, contact a physical therapist to schedule an appointment.

Static Vs. Dynamic Stretching

When I was initially tasked to write about stretching, I got excited because as a former athlete and now physical therapist for more than 16 years, I thought I understood the evidence and rationale to easily address this topic. However, like the evidence-informed therapist that I am, I decided to first perform a literature search in order to check my preconceptions. This would prove to be pivotal in how I decided to tackle the subject matter.

What is Static Stretching?

Static stretching is when you take a body part to a point where a “stretch,” or pulling sensation, is felt and hold that position for a length of time, generally less than 60 seconds in duration (position based). ​An Example of a static stretch for the arm would be a cross body stretch – holding the arm directly across the chest.

What is Dynamic Stretching?

Dynamic Stretching can be classified as a large/gross movement pattern that involves multiple joints and muscles groups moving in and out of various ranges of motion (movement based). An example of a dynamic stretch on the arm would be performing arm circles – moving the arms forward and/or backwards in various degrees of motion.

What are the Benefits of Stretching?

For years it was thought that static stretching prior to activity would help decrease injury, prepare the body for activity, improve range of motion (ROM), and even enhance performance. However, does stretching do any of these things?

  1. Reduce Injury: Most of the recent data suggests that static stretching alone is inefficient at reducing the likelihood of sustaining an injury with a sporting activity. In fact, depending on the sport, in an article recently reviewed pertaining to golf, adding static stretching seemed to increase in the likelihood of injury. However, if static stretching is incorporated into a comprehensive warm-up program, it may actually help reduce musculotendinous injury in sports that require sprinting/making sharp cuts, i.e., soccer, football, basketball, etc.
  2. Prepare Body for Activity: The idea of a “warm-up” is to increase blood flow to the muscles that we intend to use for the given activity we are about to perform as well as increase the body’s core body temperature prior to competition. Static stretching alone does not satisfy these goals, which is why many professionals would recommend dynamic stretching.
  3. Improve ROM: It has been shown that static stretching does increase ROM of the hip and knee with hamstring stretching, but there are very few research studies that have shown the same amount of change in other body areas. To observe these changes in ROM, the static stretch needs to be done consistently for no more than 45 seconds at a time for no fewer than three reps for a minimum of eight weeks.
  4. Enhance Performance: Initially, I was confident that there was indeed research that supports the notion that static stretching had been shown to reduce strength, power, and muscle performance. While that is not entirely false, the evidence is not as consistent as I had once thought. a 2013 Systematic Review of 104 studies concluded that there was a decrease in strength, power, and explosive performance (to varying degrees). However, when looking at how they did the analysis the individual study designs and the tests they used to measure strength, power, and explosive performance varied greatly, which makes it much more difficult to make blanket statements with regards to performance deficits that may exist after static stretching.

What is the Goal or Purpose of Stretching?

If your goal is to gain range of motion in a specific muscle group or joint, keep the stretch to less than 45 seconds. Dynamic stretching is preferred as it is more efficient and better prepared the body for an activity or sport.

If you want to warm up before an activity, work, or to help reduce injury, consider a Comprehensive Warm-Up (CWU). A CWU should include light aerobic activity (walking, jogging, cycling, jumping rope/jacks, etc. in which you can still speak comfortably), dynamic stretching, and a sport/activity/job specific tasks. For a sport or activity that requires sprinting/quick changes in direction, adding static stretching of less than 45 seconds in a given position may help reduce musculotendinous injury.


Josh Anderson, PT, DPT has over 15 years of diverse experience in both the on-site and outpatient settings treating patients by providing Injury Prevention Services and Early Intervention Screens, as well as utilizing a variety of Physical Therapy techniques to get patients back to work as quickly as possible. His professional interests include Balance and Vestibular Orthopedics, Sports Physical Therapy, and Manual Therapy. Josh is certified in Sports PT through Evidence in Motion, Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA), and Rocktape Level 1. He is also a Certified Clinical Instructor via the APTA.



1. K Small, et al. A Systematic Review into the Efficacy of Static Stretching as Part of a Warm-up for the Prevention of Exercise Related Injury. Research in Sports Medicine, 16:213-23, 2008
2. A Ehlert and PB Wilson. A Systematic Review of Golf Warm-ups: Behaviors, Injury and Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33(12): 3444-3462, 2019
3. DG Behm, A Chaouachi. A Review of the Acute Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111: 2633-2651, 2011
4. DM Medeiros, et al. Influence of Static Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Health Young Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 32(6): 438-445, 2016
5. DG Behm, et al. Mechanisms Underlying Performance Impairments Following Prolonged Static Stretching Without a Comprehensive Warm Up. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 121: 67-84, 2021
6. L Simic, et al. Does Stretching Improve Performance: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 23(2): 131-148, April 2013
7. Yamagichi, et al. Effects of Static Stretching for 30 seconds and Dynamic Stretching on Leg Extension Power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3): 677-683, Aug 2005
8. DG Behm, et al. Effect of Acute Static Stretching on Force, Balance, Reaction Time and Movement Time. Med Sci Sports Exercise, 36(8): 1397-1402, 2004
9. AD Kay, AJ Blazevich. The Effect of Acute Static Stretch on Maximal Muscle Performance: A Systematic Review. Medicine & Science in Sport and Exercise, 44(1):154-164, 2012
10. I Shrier. Does Stretching Improve Performance: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(1): 267-273, 2004
11. DG Behm, A Chaouachi. A Review of the Acute Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111: 2633-2651, 2011
12. H Chaabene, et al. Acute Effects of Static Stretching on Muscle Strength and Power: An Attempt to Clarify Previous Caveats. Frontiers in Physiology, 10 (1468): 1-10, 2019

Can the Value of Physical Therapy Be Measured?

October is Physical Therapy month, and the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has deemed the theme for 2024, “The Value of Physical Therapy.”

Value: noun – (val-ue) relative worth, utility or importance; consider (someone or something) to be important or beneficial.

Can the value of physical therapy really be measured?

We have tools to measure our patients’ outcomes, but can we measure the actual value of services?  Physical therapy provides a variety of benefits, including reduced pain, improved function, increased range of motion, proper alignment and more.

Physical therapists are experts at movement who are trained to optimize function, improve motion, and ultimately, live better!  They will assess your condition and help you regain maximum functional mobility and independence. Physical therapists will also  use a variety of treatment modalities and techniques to help you move better and feel better.  Treatment is highly individualized, cutting edge, and research-based to return patients to their optimum functional level and live life to its fullest.

Again, we ask, can the value of physical therapy be measured?

The answer to that question would depend on each individual patient.

  • How valuable is it to be able to walk across the room pain free?
  • What does is it worth to be able to play with your grandchildren in the backyard? Or go on a walk with them?
  • Does your pain or inability to function at your best hold you back from taking that dream vacation?
  • Does your desk set-up at work cause you to go home at the end of the day with headaches?
  • Are there any extra-curricular activities that you are passing up because your back, neck, or another body part is holding you back?
  • How much do you value a pain free life to participate in any activities you enjoy?

Physical therapists treat people across the entire lifespan. Many therapists have certifications or specializations to treat a certain population, like children, the elderly, or athletes. Regardless of age or population, if you have a condition that is keeping you from the activities in your life, a physical therapy evaluation may be warranted to offer treatment and a strategy to improve function.

The benefits of physical therapy include:

  • Prevention of the onset and/or slow progression of conditions resulting from injury, disease, and other causes
  • Pain management with reduced need for opioids
  • Avoidance of surgery
  • Improvement in mobility and movement
  • Recovery from injury or trauma
  • Recovery from stroke or paralysis
  • Fall prevention
  • Improvement in balance
  • Management of age-related medical problems

From the APTA:

“A recent study also examined the overall value of choosing physical therapy over other options. Researchers calculated the economic impact of choosing physical therapy for the following eight conditions, representing a broad spectrum of physical therapist treatment: Cancer Rehabilitation, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Falls Prevention, Stress Urinary Incontinence, Osteoarthritis of the Knee, Low Back Pain, Tennis Elbow, and Claudication (leg pain when walking due to restricted blood flow).  They found that physical therapy is effective and saves on all the hidden costs of your time, pain, missed life events, and the dollars paid for services.

Find a physical pherapist

If you have an injury or illness that results in pain, physical impairment, limited movement, or a loss of function, a physical therapist can help.  Some patients are referred to physical therapy from his or her physician, and others seek therapy directly. Find out how valuable physical therapy can be to you.

Falls Prevention Week

Each September, we recognize Falls Prevention Week to raise awareness of the impact of falls. The good news is that most falls are preventable.  Tx:Team’s Teaming Up Against Falls Program incorporates the components of the Otago Exercise Program including balance, strength, flexibility, vestibular, and proprioception evaluation and treatment to tackle balance issues and help prevent falls.

According to

  • Falls are the leading cause of injuries in older adults. One out of five falls result in a significant injury such as broken bones or a head injury.
  • Each year, three million older adults go to the emergency room because of falls. Over 800,000 need to go into the hospital.
  • Older women are twice as likely to fall and break a bone as older men. Men have a higher risk of dying after a fall. 


What can I do to decrease my risk of falling?

  • 75% of falls occur in the home. You can decrease your chance of falling by keeping your home safe for you to move around.
  • Make sure you have good lighting in every room. Include night lights in your bedroom, hallways, and bathrooms.
  • Rugs should be firmly fastened to the ground, especially at the corners. Electrical cords should be kept off the walking areas.
  • Add handrails to your bathrooms for support for your bath, shower, and toilet use.
  • Always use the rails on stairs on both sides and ensure that each stair is well lit or has a visual cue.
  • Wear shoes with firm, nonskid, non-friction soles. Avoid wearing loose slippers that could cause you to trip.
  • Keep kitchen items within easy reach to avoid using step stools.
  • Place the bed at a proper height to allow for feet to be flat on floor while sitting at bedside.

Taking good care of your body will also keep you strong, mobile, and more independent.

  • See your eye doctor once a year.
  • Care for your feet and see a doctor if you have pain or corns.
  • Use assistive devices if they are recommended to you.
  • Sit on the bed for a few minutes before getting up to go to the bathroom at night. This will prevent dizziness in the dark.

If you notice that you may have some trouble with your balance or mobility in general, talk to a physical therapist and find out how they can help you to stay on your feet and prevent falls.

Balancing Act: Keeping You On Your Feet

Do you find you are less confident than you used to be when walking in a crowded environment or on an uneven surface? Are you avoiding certain activities, or perhaps gripping the handrail a little tighter these days? If so, you’re not alone. Up to 85% of older adults are afraid of falling, and with good reason. One out of every five falls results in a serious injury and falling once doubles your likelihood of falling again.

Most people don’t even think about their balance until it starts to deteriorate, but there’s a lot going on behind the scenes to keep us on two feet. Our brain uses sensory input from our feet to adapt to the surface, and proprioceptors on our joints to know where we are in space. Our eyes and ears give us information about our environment, and our inner ear, or vestibular system, keeps our equilibrium. These systems work together to tell our motor system how to make corrections and keep us upright.

These corrections are typically fairly automatic and start with engaging our ankles, then bending at the hips, and eventually a quick step in order to recover. If these reactions aren’t strong enough or quick enough, we end up on the floor. Unfortunately, many medical conditions, as well as general deconditioning, can have a negative impact on your ability to both identify and correct a loss of balance. The good news, however, is there are things you can do to not only maintain your stability but gain it back! Some of these strategies include:

  • Strengthening your hips and thighs. These large muscles are responsible for keeping you upright and shifting your weight into your base of support
  • Stretching out your calves. Flexibility in your ankle actually plays a big role in whether your body can effectively right itself when you start to wobble.
  • Getting your eyes and ears checked regularly to maintain optimal function.
  • Wearing properly fitting footwear with good traction and reviewing your home for possible trip hazards.
  • If you’re struggling with dizziness, have your doctor review your medications with you for possible side effects.

The fear of falling may be a healthy fear at times. After all, it often keeps us from doing unsafe things. However, studies show that a fear of falling is associated with higher risk of falls, partly because individuals reduce their regular mobility and avoid activities that would normally challenge their system. This results in increasing weakness and perpetuates the cycle of instability.

Programs that target balance, like yoga and tai chi, are great, but the key to staying committed is to pick something you really enjoy. Activities like golf or gardening can be just as effective at challenging your system. Even going for a walk with a friend will require you to turn your head and hold a distracting conversation while picking your feet up and avoiding obstacles! If you’re unsure where to start, talk to a local physical or occupational therapist. They can do a specialized assessment to determine where your specific problems lie and recommend strategies to address them. Most importantly, keep moving! As they say, a body in motion stays in motion!

Rachel Hett, PT, DPT is a graduate of the University of Florida where she received her Bachelor of Health Science as well as her Doctor of Physical Therapy.  She is an experienced physical therapist as well as Team Leader in the senior living setting.  Her professional interests lie in Falls & Balance, Vestibular, Dementia, and Neuro programming.  Rachel is also a Certified Dementia Capable Care Specialist.

You Take that First Step and OUCH

You get out of bed and go to take that first step. OUCH! 

A sharp pain hits your foot. You limp a few steps but before you are out the door, the pain is gone. After sitting at work for a couple hours, you get up for another cup of coffee and the pain returns. 

It’s possible you are dealing with plantar fasciitis.

But what exactly is plantar fasciitis and what can we do about it? 

The suffix -itis indicates inflammation. Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the plantar fascia. This leads to the next question, what is the plantar fascia? Plantar is the bottom side of the foot and fascia is a thin casing of connective tissue. Putting those two together, the plantar fascia is a band of connective tissue that runs from your heel to your toes, and it helps support the arch of your foot, stability of the foot, and is involved with normalized foot mechanics. Unfortunately, through a series of microtears from overstress and over stretch, the fascia can get inflamed and plantar fasciitis occurs.

Why exactly does plantar fasciitis occur is a great question. There are a few common risk factors to look at first. Generally, it will occur in people 40-70 years old. Activities such as running and dancing can increase the risk of developing plantar fasciitis. Occupations that keep you on your feet also increase the risk for developing it. People who are overweight or obese place more stress on their feet and this can cause plantar fasciitis. Lastly, if you have abnormal foot posture or walking pattern, e.g. flat feet, high arches, this can increase risk as well.

Now what to do about it? 

  • It is important to keep your calves loose. When the calf muscles become tight, they will pull up on the achilles, which pulls up on the heel, which stresses the plantar fascia.
  • Improving the strength of the arches of the feet can also reduce stress placed on the plantar fascia.
  • Stretching your big toe backward (toward the top of your foot) can provide an excellent stretch on the plantar fascia and rolling your foot on a lacrosse ball is another great option.
  • Orthotics can also help to normalize your foot if you have high arches or flat feet, thus reducing the stress on the plantar fascia.

Although plantar fasciitis can be a painful way to start the day, it is certainly treatable through a variety of stretches, exercises, and lifestyle modifications. If you feel you are suffering from plantar fasciitis, make an appointment with your local Physical Therapist and get back on your feet and  walking pain free.

Alex Strahle, PT, DPT, CSCS graduated from the University of Evansville with a Bachelor of Science in Exercise Science and a Doctor of Physical Therapy.  He is currently a Physical Therapist in the Employer-Based Clinic setting for Tx:Team.  Alex enjoys seeing patients return to an active lifestyle after treatment for their pain and dysfunction.

Is Aquatic Therapy Right For Your Patient?

Physical therapy, historically, has been helping people since the early 1900s. However, the healing benefits of water for the human body date back to ancient Greek and Roman times. After battle, warriors and gladiators would soak in hot springs because they realized they were able to recover faster and get back to battle.

Fast forward, as physical therapists our number one job today is getting patients back to their previous level of function, or ‘back to war!’ We have learned what the ancients already knew, that water has many therapeutic properties including buoyancy, resistance, pressure, and warmer temperatures. These properties allow the patient to exercise with less impact to improve skills at all functional levels:

  • Strength: water is natural resistance, movement patterns allow gentle exercise with buoyancy to allow for improved tolerance to strength exercises.
  • Flexibility: warm water increases tissue temperatures to generate a comfortable environment for mobility exercises and improved range of motion.
  • Endurance: water is denser then air, therefore it is harder to do exercises in water than on land. This can be a stepping-stone to improve tolerance for activity on land.

Aquatic therapy has many benefits for the patient following injury as compared to a traditional land setting by removing gravity. Acute sprains, strains, and fractures with decreased weight baring are great candidates for the pool. Patients can benefit from aquatic therapy or land therapy individually.  They can also benefit from a combination of land and water therapy working together. The plan of care may look different for each patient. Some patients need one visit of land with one visit of aquatics each week, or half the session on land for manual therapy and half on water in the same day for exercises. Patients with poor tolerance to exercises due to chronic pain conditions may thrive in the water to build confidence to perform functional skills on land including; osteoporosis, arthritis, fibro myalgia, and balance disorders.

Aquatic therapy is a modality to aid the therapist in their quest for helping our patients get better faster, and back to their lives…or war!


Meagan Gearhart, PTA, is a Physical Therapist Assistant treating in the outpatient setting.  She has extensive experience in not only aquatics but also in orthopedics, post-surgical and non-surgical diagnoses, and a variety of conditions pertaining to musculoskeletal conditions and injuries.